Social theories of white collar crime


When policing is oriented to human rights and to human obligations, much of the selfish, exploitative behavior of law officers is eliminated. In the s, psychological research was focused on early childhood experiences that tended to lead to criminality in later life, including poor parental child-rearing techniques, such as harsh or inconsistent discipline.

The most common data used in criminological research are official statistics, which are collected as part of the operation of criminal justice agencies. The research community remains divided on whether the general theory is sustainable but there is emerging confirmation of some of its predictions e.

Given their social position, the police have an extraordinary opportunity to engage in white collar crime. There are various theories that take a group approach, claiming that behavior is the product of group learning.

Blue-collar crime The types of crime committed are a function of what is available to the potential offender.

Any attempt to get an individual to do or refrain from doing something can be considered an attempt at control. During this period reformers such as Cesare Beccaria in Italy and Sir Samuel RomillyJohn Howardand Jeremy Bentham in England, all representing the so-called classical school of criminology, sought penological and legal reform rather than criminological knowledge.

When workers own and operate their own means of production, there is no need for a union. Nevertheless, the combined information from self-report surveys, victimization surveys, and official statistics will generally provide a more accurate description of crime.

Definitional issues[ edit ] Modern criminology generally rejects a limitation of the term by reference, rather classifies the type of crime and the topic: As a general observation, it seems intuitively obvious that groups can promote the learning of criminal activity.

The stigmatisation engendered by the criminal justice system therefore produces a self-fulfilling prophecy—young people labelled criminals assume the identity of a criminal. For these reasons, juvenile justice supervision can be highly resource-intensive New Economics Foundation Creation and dissemination of computer virus is not unlike the Luddite smashing of old Instead, the presence of these factors merely increases the chance that the person will engage in criminal behaviour.

A contested trial can only result in conviction if the prosecution successfully rebuts this presumption. Less so among tribal communities since there is little family privacy for such assault. David Matza[ edit ] An analysis of 'neutralization' was developed by Sykes and Matza [11] who believed that there was little difference between delinquents and non-delinquents, with delinquents engaging in non-delinquent behavior most of the time.

Researchers have attempted to explain why this pattern existed and have also recommended policies designed to reduce lethal violence.

Social Learning Theory In White-Collar Crime-Enron Scandal

Stock brokers would like to know the credit record of any of the thousands of companies listed on the three stock exchanges. By not deliberately operationalizing self-control traits and criminal behavior or criminal acts individually, it suggests that the concepts of low self-control and propensity for criminal behavior are the same.

Young people aged 15 to 24 years are at a higher risk of assault than any other age group in Australia and males aged 15 to 19 years are more than twice as likely to become a victim of robbery as males aged 25 or older, and all females AIC American society represented the antithesis of all that was "good" in the eyes of Khomeni and his followers.

Social learning theories also raise the question: For example, gangs not only provide an environment where delinquent activity is permissible, but minimize the chance of apprehension through cooperation.

Edited by Michael Tonry and David P. Furthermore, the concept that people are uncontrollable and may offend against those norms in social interactions, cannot be explained by simply counting how many people practice the golden rule see the general discussion in Braithwaite: Some crime is only possible because of the identity of the offender, e.

The property rights to these programs are owned by media corporations. The nature of juvenile offending Juveniles are more likely than adults to come to the attention of police, for a variety of reasons.

White-collar worker

Deviance provides a way in which some individuals and groups can introduce their agendas to the rest of society, and elevate their own personal status while doing it. It should be acknowledged in relation to the above that the proportion of offenders comprised by juveniles varies according to offence type.

The more an individual associates with such persons, the more likely it becomes that he will learn and adopt criminal values and behaviours. In many countries (such as Australia, Canada, France, New Zealand, United Kingdom, and United States), a white-collar worker is a person who performs professional, managerial, or administrative work.

White-collar work may be performed in an office or other administrative setting. Other types of work are those of a blue-collar worker, whose job requires manual labor and a pink-collar worker.

The Next Theory: The critiques of the Social Control theory led to the formation of the Social learning theory, a behavioral approach by Albert Bandura.

Bandura takes the focus away from an internal conflict between an individual and society, and creates a theory in which the influences are mainly behavioral. In criminology, social control theory proposes that exploiting the process of socialization and social learning builds self-control and reduces the inclination to indulge in behavior recognized as antisocial.

It derives from functionalist theories of crime and was developed by Ivan Nye (), who proposed that there were four types of control.

What makes juvenile offenders different from adult offenders?

Direct: by which punishment is threatened or. Discouraging the choice of crime. The purpose of punishment is to discourage a person from committing a crime. Punishment is supposed to make criminal behavior less attractive and more risky.

This paper outlines the factors (biological, psychological and social) that make juvenile offenders different from adult offenders and that necessitate unique responses to juvenile crime. Buy The Criminal Brain: Understanding Biological Theories of Crime on FREE SHIPPING on qualified orders.

Social theories of white collar crime
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The Social Control Theory « History of Forensic Psychology